shows recurrent seizures, which are usually impressive. Epilepsy can affect some dogs.
like humans, epilepsy is a common disease in dogs. It has different origins, and the affected animals themselves cannot cure it. On the other hand, there are some treatments that can reduce the intensity and frequency of seizures and enable dogs to live normally.
dog is called epilepsy. When it is subjected to several seizures, it is due to the over excitation of some neurons. The latter is characterized by sometimes severe seizures, and the owner of the sick dog may feel helpless.
the intensity and frequency of seizures in dogs vary from individual to individual.
Seizures can break out in dogs without obvious causes. They can also be caused by stress events, such as sudden and unusual noise or slight stimulation.
can be announced by some symptoms constituting the prodromal period before seizures. The duration is variable (possibly up to several days) and may be characterized by behavioral changes or unexplained severe fatigue. These symptoms are sometimes difficult to detect or even non-existent. However, owners of dogs accustomed to seizures will be able to recognize their animal specific symptoms.
when seizures are imminent, dogs may show the same symptoms, but more obvious. This stage is called halo and can be compared to partial seizures.
it precedes the seizure itself, that is, epilepsy, which may be excessive salivation. This phase may last more than 5 minutes. If the seizure is widespread (i.e., neuronal hyperexcitability affects both hemispheres of the brain), the seizure may include pedal movement, called clonal phase, and a tonic phase during which the animal will be in opisthotonos (limb stiffness and depression).
Finally, in the post seizure stage, the dog recovers from the crisis and shows a kind of depression. The animal looks a little lost. It may be difficult to walk or even stand on its legs for some time. It may also have difficulty breathing because its saliva blocks its respiratory tract. This phase may last for several days. Animals may also show aggression and biting.
structural, reactive and essential epilepsy
are three types of epilepsy in dogs.
is the most common form and can be treated medically. Also known as primary or idiopathic epilepsy. Its origin is unclear because it is associated with many diseases that make up neurons, making them depolarized at the same time. These diseases are usually hereditary and caused by polygenic mutations. Seizures may be caused by external stimuli, such as noise, excitement, vision or smell. The first primary seizure in
dogs may occur at the age of 6 months. In some subjects, they announced their identity around the age of 6. The
breeds were more exposed than other breeds: Beagle, German shepherd, Belgian shepherd, border shepherd, boxer, Cox, Collie, Irish lancet, Labrador hound, poodle, St. Bernard, Siberian Husky, Welsh kogis and Fox Terrier.
, also known as structural epilepsy or intracranial epilepsy, is caused byAbnormal brain structure itself is caused by stroke, congenital malformation, tumor, parasite or viral encephalitis.
structural seizures can occur at any age of dogs. This disease is usually associated with other symptoms, such as difficulty in movement or coordination.
extracranial reactive epilepsy
dogs reactive epilepsy originates from blood abnormalities affecting brain function.
“KDSPS This form of dog epilepsy may be caused by pancreatic tumors, diabetes or hypoglycemia caused by strenuous exercise. Some drugs can also cause this, such as those containing ibuprofen. Toxic substances such as Temik (banned in France and Europe) used as anti slug products or certain pesticides such as organochlorine. This form of epilepsy may also be caused by liver failure leading to hepatic encephalopathy. Seizures must be stopped, especially if they last more than 5 minutes, to avoid irreversible nerve damage. Veterinarians will evaluate some parameters, such as heart function, temperature and some blood parameters.
owners can also try to reduce seizures in animals: during seizures, they should provide a minimum pressure environment without light or noise.
generally speaking, only the first type of epilepsy, the so-called primary epilepsy, can be treated. Even here, medical care can not cure it, but improve the quality of life of dogs by reducing the frequency and intensity of seizures.
if seizures are caused outside the skull, the etiology must be treated (diabetes, liver failure…).
After diagnosis, veterinarians usually prescribe a sedative drug, such as gabapentin or phenobarbital.
an animal with only one isolated seizure will not need special treatment. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and violence of crises, if they occur frequently. Therefore, it is important to record the date and duration of seizures so that veterinarians can adjust treatment as needed.
the treatment of epilepsy in dogs also has side effects: sleepiness, lack of muscle tone, etc.